December 7, 1520 (Part 2)

Martin Luther writes to George Spalatin concerning his defenses of the articles condemned in the papal bull Exsurge Domine.[1] The fourth and last of these writings is the German version of the Assertio omnium articulorum M. Lutheri per bullam Leonis X. novissimam damnatorum, titled Grund und Ursach aller Artikel D. Martin Luthers so durch römische Bulle unrechtlich…

December 7, 1520 (Part 1)

Martin Luther writes to George Spalatin (Quotation 1) concerning his defenses of the articles condemned in the papal bull Exsurge Domine. Luther had dedicated his Assertio omnium articulorum M. Lutheri per bullam Leonis X. novissimam damnatorum to Fabian von Feilitzsch, Elector Frederick's cousin and counselor. He is now considering to whom to dedicate the German version, Grund…

December 3, 1520

George Spalatin writes from Wittenberg to Elector Frederick, reporting on Martin Luther's reaction to the bull Exsurge Domine and his progress on the point-by-point refutation Frederick advised him to write: Most serene, highborn Prince, most gracious Lord. I will not conceal from your Grace that I arrived here at Wittenberg last evening shortly before four…

December 1, 1520

Martin Luther dedicates his Assertion of all the Articles of M. Luther which were Condemned by the Latest Bull of Leo X (Assertio omnium articulorum M. Lutheri per bullam Leonis X. novissimam damnatorum) to Fabian von Feilitzsch, Elector Frederick's cousin and counselor. The Assertio omnium articulorum will be the third of four treatises written by Luther in…

November – December, 1520

Thomas Murner (1475-1537), a Franciscan friar from Strasbourg, writes three treatises against Luther. The first attacks Luther’s Treatise on the New Testament, That Is, the Holy Mass. The second defends Alveld [1] against Luther’s On the Papacy in Rome;‍ the third joins Emser’s attack on Luther’s address To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation.‍[2] Emser…

November 29, 1520 (Part 3)

Martin Luther writes to George Spalatin, mentioning that he has begun to write a defense of his articles that were condemned in the papal bull Exsurge Domine. (See Part 1 and Part 2 for the text of this letter.) Luther will write both Latin and German versions of his defense. Our Quotation is taken from…

November 29, 1520 (Part 2)

Martin Luther writes to George Spalatin, mentioning that he has begun to write a defense of his articles that were condemned in the papal bull Exsurge Domine. (Quotation 1) On January 16, 1521, Luther will send Spalatin the completed Assertion of All the Articles Wrongly Condemned in the Roman Bull (Assertio omnium articulorum per Bullam Leonis X.…

November 29, 1520 (Part 1)

Martin Luther writes to George Spalatin, mentioning that he has begun to write a defense of his articles that are condemned in the papal bull Exsurge Domine, but that he will not be asking Spalatin to translate it from Latin to German. Luther had already in October written a Latin "Anti-bull," Adversus exsecrabilem Antichristi bullam, (Against…

November 28 or 29, 1520

Martin Luther's books are burned in Mainz. The procedure did not run as smoothly as it had in other cities in western Germany. Aleander was threatened and the executioner initially refused to burn books that, according to public opinion, had not been lawfully condemned. This delayed the burning until the next day. Although Aleander believed…

November 28, 1520 (Part 2)

Martin Luther writes to Johann Lange (or Lang), his old friend and the prior of the Augustinian monastery in Erfurt.[1] Luther expresses his determination to stand by his appeal from an ill-informed pope to a better-informed pope or a general council of the Church (Quotation 1). Meanwhile, The Freedom of a Christian is being widely…